History of Vaccines


Vaccines used to prevent bacterial diseases

Types of vaccines

Developing new vaccines

Safety of vaccines

Diagnostic immunology

Monoclonal antibodies


History of Vaccines

-     Variolation: Inoculation of smallpox into skin (18th century)

-     Vaccination:

-     Inoculation of cowpox virus into skin (Jenner)

-     Inoculation with rabies virus (Pasteur)


Measles Worldwide

-     Kills 600 children per day


Vaccines Used to Prevent Bacterial Diseases


Vaccines for Persons Aged 0–6 Years

-     Hepatitis B

-     Rotavirus

-     DTP

-     Haemophilus influenzae b

-     Pneumococcal

-     Inactivated poliovirus

-     Influenza

-     MMR

-     Varicella

-     Hepatitis A

-     Meningococcal


Types of Vaccines

-     Attenuated whole-agent vaccines

-     MMR

-     Inactivated whole-agent vaccines

-     Salk polio

-     Toxoids

-     Tetanus

-     Subunit vaccines

-     Acellular pertussis

-     Recombinant hepatitis B

-     Nucleic acid (DNA) vaccines

-     West Nile (for horses)


The Development of New Vaccines

-     Culture pathogen

-     rDNA techniques

-     In plants

-     Adjuvants

-     Deliver in combination


Safety of Vaccines

-     Therapeutic index =

-     Risk vs. benefit


Diagnostic Immunology

-     Sensitivity: Probability that the test is reactive if the specimen is a true positive

-     Specificity: Probability that a positive test will not be reactive if a specimen is a true negative

-     KochÕs experiment

-     Guinea pigs with TB injected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Site became red and slightly swollen


Monoclonal Antibodies (Mabs)

-     Hybridoma: ÒImmortalÓ cancerous B cell fused with an antibody-producing normal B cell, produces

-     Monoclonal antibodies: A single kind of antibody produced from a clonal cell culture

-     Muromonab-CD3: For kidney transplant

-     Infliximab: For CrohnÕs disease

-     Ibritumomab + rituximab: For non-HodgkinÕs lymphoma

-     Trastuzumab: Herceptin for breast cancer

-     Chimeric Mabs: Genetically modified mice that produce Ab with a human constant region

-     Humanized Mabs: Mabs that are mostly human, except for mouse antigen–binding

-     Fully human antibodies: Mabs produced from a human gene on a mouse