Exam 3 Review

Chapter 7

Know the factors that influence microbial death, including the main actions of the control agents.  What is TDP, DRT, TDT.? Be able to use graphic information to infer details regarding TDP, DRT, and TDT.

Know how heat sterilization works, what Pasteurization is, and when filtration is appropriate.

Be aware of the various physical methods of controlling microbial growth, including radiation approaches.

Know how to measure the effectiveness of a microbial growth control approach (e.g. use dilution test).

Chapter 8

Know the structure of DNA and RNA, and how DNA and RNA are synthesized.  Know how DNA is replicated.

Know how proteins are produced (transcription and translation)?

What are regulator mechanisms?  Inducible, repressible, and catabolite repression?

What are mutations and what kinds of mutations are there?  What causes mutations?

What are the three mechanisms of recombination?

What are plasmids and transposons? 

Chapter 9

Describe the PCR reaction

Utility and importance of E.coli, as well as restriction enzymes, in biotechnology.

What is "recombinant DNA".

Understand what restriction enzymes are, how they are named, what a recognition sequence is, sticky vs. blunt ends, and be able to identify if a piece of DNA can be cut by a specific restriction enzyme.

Important terms:  Vector, Clone, Library, Transformation, Plasmid, TiPlasmid, Protoplast fusion, Gene gun, Agrobacterium, Direct selection, Replica plating, Primer, Polymerase, Restriction enzyme.

Chapter 16

Understand the basics of immunity

Know the first line of defense, including physical/chemical factors and normal microbiota.

Know the second line of defense, including formed blood elements (and what they do), the lymph system, phagocytotic process, inflammatory and fever response process (think about the steps involved), and generalities of the compliment system.  Know that the three pathways eventually activate C3 to start the cascade of responses; know the three outcomes of compliment activation.   Be able to state what 'margination' is, what is found in blood serum, the function of the ciliary escalator, etc.

Chapter 17

Know about the adaptive immunity

Know the humoral and cellular aspects, and what cells are responsible for each

Know how B and T cells mature and how each is activated, and what happens when each is activated

Know about antigens (including epitopes) and antibodies (including structure and valence); what is an immunoglobin?

How do antibodies do their jobs?  Consider agglutination, opsonization, etc.

Know the three classes of T cells (T-H, T-C, T-Reg) and their roles in immunity

Know about antigen presenting cells and how they present the antigen (eg. B cells use an MHC)

Know the basics of how immune system memory works

Finally, know about natural vs acquired and active vs passive immunity