Micro 100 Exam 2 Review

Suggested material for review.  Do not expect that all of this will be covered on the exam, or that the exam will only cover this suggested material.  DO READ the chapters in the text, go over notes, and ASK QUESTIONS of the professor if you have any.

The exam will cover part of chapter 4, plus chapter 5.

There will be NO ESSAY QUESTIONS on Exam 2, but the exam will still be fairly challenging.  A scantron (#882-e) and a pencil will be required.  Laboratory will be scheduled as normal, after the exam.

Be able to discuss the concepts related to tonicity Hypertonic, isotonic, and hypotonic.  Know what happens to a cell placed in any of those conditions.

Know the mechanisms whereby cells transport things into and out of the cell itself (i.e., passive transport and active transport mechanisms).

Know the components of prokaryote and eukaryote cells, with special understanding of the prokaryote cell walls.

Know what an enzyme is and what they do for living cells.  Understand how they contribute to reducing the metabolic costs of an organism.  Important details to review include specificity, active site, enzyme naming, components (apoenzyme, cofactor, etc), and basic mechanisms of enzyme action.  Review factors that influence enzyme activity, including temperature, pH, and inhibition.

Know the general processes of glycolysis, cell respiration, and fermentation.  Be familiar with the main pathway of glucose metabolism, but also have a grasp of where proteins and fats might be catabolized.  Focus on electron transfer and the role it plays in aerobic respiration.

Understand the difference and importance of oxidation and reduction (oxidized state vs. reduced state), especially as related to cell energy harvesting pathways.  Be able to identify visually whether something is oxidized or reduced (eg., H is reduced compared to H+); and recognize the same with respect to molecules depicted in chemical reactions (see pp. 120-121 in text).  Know oxidative phosphorylation, substrate level phosphorylation, and photophosphorylation in general terms.

Know the general processes of glycolysis, cell respiration, and fermentation.  Understand electron transfer and the role it plays in aerobic respiration.  Be able to identify the components of the electron transfer system, functioning to produce an H+ gradient that powers ATP production.  Be aware of glycolysis alternatives or parallel processes, such as pentose-phosphate pathway and Entner-Doudoroff pathway.

Know the differences, in general, between photoheterotrophs, photoautotrophs, chemoheterotrophs, and chemoautotrophs.  Know the source of energy to get the process going (sunlight, organic compounds, or inorganic compounds), and know the source of carbons for each process (CO2 or organic compounds).