Name Scientific Name Symptoms
Anthrax Bacillus anthracis Difficulty breathing, tissue edema, bleeding
Arboviral diseases Any of several viruses Fever, headache, rash
Botulism Clostridium botulinum Muscle weakness, facial paralysis, spreading to limbs, then respiratory failure
Brucellosis Brucella spp Profuse sweating, joint, muscle pain, fever undulates over the weeks
Chancroid Haemophilus ducreyi Sexually transmitted; small bump transforms into an ulcer within a day (3-50mm); ulcers are painful, bleed easily, have a sharply-defined, undermined, ragged border
Chlamydia trachomatis infection Chlamydia trachomatis Sexually transmitted; often symptomless in women, but maybe causing fever, painful urination/intercourse, abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding; men show urethritis, fever, light discharge, swollen/tender testicles, epididymitis and possible sterility within 8 weeks
Cholera Vibrio cholerae Sudden profuse watery diarrhea, dehydration, electrolyte loss, painful abdomen, vomiting
Cryptosporidiosis Cryptosporidium Appear about 7 days after infection, last up to 4 weeks; asymptomatic or acute or persistent watery diarrhea with mucosal discharge; abdominal pain; HIV patients presenting with diarrhea; may result in pancreatitis
Cyclosporiasis Cyclospora cayetanensis One week incubation, followed by bloating, fever, muscle ache, stomach cramps, watery diarrhea,
Dengue Flavivirus Mosquito transmitted; Sudden fever with severe headache, muscle, and joint pain; later hemorrhagic rash on chest and lower limbs
Diphtheria Corynebacterium diphtheriae Incubation of 2-5 days; sore throat, mild fever, pseudomembrane on tonsils, pharynx, and/or nasal cavity; swollen neck (bull neck), trouble swallowing, low blood pressure
Ehrlichiosis or Anaplasmosis Ehrlichia and Anaplasma Tick-borne infection; headache, muscle ache, fatigue; sometimes rash; depressed immune system
Giardiasis Giardia lamblia Intestinal cramps, explosive diarrhea, vomiting, fever; chronic weight loss, lactose intolerance, malnutrition
Gonorrhea Neisseria gonorrhoeae Sexually transmitted; symptoms in 2-30 days; males = painful urination & yellowish discharge; females = vaginal discharge, difficult urination, bleeding, inflamed cervix
Haemophilus influenzae, invasive disease Haemophilus influenzae Respiratory tract infections; Meningitis (fever, headache, stiff neck, photophobia); bacterial pneumonia; sepsis; arthritis; fatigue;
Hansen disease (leprosy) Mycobacterium leprae;M. lepromatosis Skin lesions, progressing to permanent damage to skin, nerves, limbs, and eyes
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome Hantavirus Flu-like (fever, chills, muscle aches) then a break, then shortness of breath and respiratory failure; headache, dry cough, nausea/vomiting; rapid heart beat (tachycardia)
Hemolytic uremic syndrome, post-diarrheal Escherichia coli O157:H7 Mostly in children, following diarrhea caused by E. coli O157:H7; hemolytic anemia, acute renal failure (uremia) and a low platelet count (thrombocytopenia)
Hepatitis Hepatitis viruses Jaundice, anorexia (poor appetite), and malaise; flu-like symptoms; swelling of the liver
HIV infection* Human immunodeficiency virus Symptoms are usually the result of conditions that do not normally affect individuals with healthy immune systems
Influenza-associated pediatric mortality Influenza virus Flu-like (fever, headache, muscle ache, tiredness, loss of appetite) resulting in death
Legionellosis Legionella pneumophila Fever, chills, cough, pneumonia; 2-14 day lag period
Listeriosis Listeria monocytogenes Fever, muscle ache, nausea, diarrhea, meningitis (headache, stiff neck, loss of balance, convulsions); pregnant women = flu-like symptoms, miscarriage, stillbirth, early delivery; often caused by eating contaminated food products
Lyme disease Borrelia burgdorferi Tick transmitted; flu-like symptoms first (fever, chills, headache, lethargy, muscle pain), bulls-eye rash or raised red bump at bite site with clear center area (1-3"); later symptoms whole body itching, joint inflammation, stiff neck, strange behavior
Malaria Plasmodium falciparum Mosquito transmitted 10-14 day lag; High fever, shivering, convulsions, joint pain; cycles of coldness, rigor, then high fever/sweating (every 6 hours; cycling every 2-3 days)
Measles Morbillivirus Fever, cough, runny nose, red eyes, rash within 3-5 days of first symptoms starting at head then down body, itchy, white spots in mouth
Meningococcal disease Neisseria meningitidis Meningitis (headache, stiff neck , loss of balance, convulsions), high fever, purpurea (subcutaneous bleeding), petechia (red spots); meningococcemia (flu-like symptoms), seizures; photophobia
Mumps Mumps virus Flu-like (fever, headache, muscle ache, tiredness, loss of appetite), swelling of face below ears; orchitis in males
Novel influenza A virus infections Influenzavirus A Flu-like (fever, headache, muscle ache, tiredness, loss of appetite)
Pertussis Bordetella pertussis Cold-like symptoms within a week, develops into violent coughing that causes a "whooping" sound when patient tries to take a breath; ma lead to vomiting, choking, and temporary loss of consciousness; low fever, diarrhea, runny nose
Plague Yersinia pestis Flea transmitted or enters through skin; in 2-5 days symptoms include painful/swollen lymph glands (and also at entry site), flu-like symptoms (fever, muscle pain, chills, headache); seizures; bloody urine, extreme pain, lenticulae (black dots across the body); 66% chance of death w/in a week if untreated
Poliovirus infection, nonparalytic Poliovirus Usually asymptomatic, but possible flu-like symptoms (fever, muscle pain, chills, headache); onset of paralysis (any parts), difficulty breathing
Psittacosis Chlamydophila psittaci From exposure to infected birds after 5-15 days; asymptomatic to severe atypical pneumonia symptoms; prostrating fevers, chills, headache, muscle ache, dry cough (blood-tinged sputum), conjunctivitis, rose spots on skin
Q Fever Coxiella burnetii From associating with livestock, birthing of livestock, especially; incubation of 2-3 weeks, followed by flu-like symptoms accompanied by profuse sweating; chest pain w/breathing, joint pain, clay-colored stool, shortness of breath,
Rabies Rabies virus Following a bite from an infected mammal; usually w/in 3-7 weeks; anxiety, drooling, muscle spasms or loss of control/convulsions, numbness,
Rubella Rubella virus Asymptomatic to 1-2 days of mild fever, headache, runny nose, malaise, rash on face spreading downwards, lasting up to 3 days
Rubella, congenital syndrome Rubella virus In newborns from pregnant mothers infected in the first trimester or before; sensorineural deafness, cataracts or microphthalmia, and congenital heart disease
Salmonellosis Salmonella Usually from food eaten; 8-72 hours after infection; diarrhea, fever, vomiting, abdominal cramps;
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-associated Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) disease SARS-CoV Flu-like (fever above 100.4F, headache, muscle ache, tiredness, gastrointestinal problems, cough, sore throat)
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) Escherichia coli From contaminated food, including undercooked foods, within 1-8 days; Sudden onset of severe abdominal cramping, bloody/watery diarrhea, vomiting, and low-grade fever;
Shigellosis Shigella From feces-contaminated food or water; sudden abdominal pain/cramping, sudden fever, stool w/blood/mucus/pus, nausea/vomiting, watery diarrhea
Smallpox Variola virus Starts with flu-like symptoms w/in 12 days of infection, lasting 2-4 days; by 12-15 days, rash of small discolored spots on skin with tiny raised bumps on them (maculopapular rash) quickly develops (over course of 24-36 hours) followed by raised, fluid-filled blisters;
Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis Rickettsia rickettsii From ticks, starting with non-specific fever, nausea, headache, muscle pain; rash possible, inward-spreading (from extremities to trunk) and w/in 2-5 days of fever and possibly on palms or soles
Streptococcal toxic-shock syndrome Streptococcus pyogenes Often in those with pre-existing skin infections, w/severe pain at infection site followed rapidly by high fever, low blood pressure, confusion, malaise; untreated it progresses quickly to a coma and then multi-organ failure
Syphilis Treponema pallidum Sexually transmitted; difficult to initially diagnose; usually only one chancroid sore (sometimes many) 10-90 days following infection (the sore is firm, round, small, and painless, lasting 3-6 weeks); secondary infection includes non-itchy rash that may appear on palms and soles as early as when the chancres are diminishing; late/latent stage symptoms include paralysis, numbness, muscle coordination problems, gradual blindness, and dementia
Tetanus Clostridium tetani From toxins produced after entry into a wound; starts with mild spasms in the jaw, perhaps also affecting neck, back, chest, and abdomen muscles; associated symptoms include drooling, fever, sweating, irritability, hand/foot spasms, lack of control of urination and defecation
Toxic-shock syndrome (other than Streptococcal) Staphylococcus aureus Often in those with pre-existing staph infections (pneumonia, abscess, skin/wound infection), starting w/severe pain at infection site followed rapidly by high fever, low blood pressure, confusion, malaise; a sunburn-like rash often develops early and on any region of the body; untreated it progresses quickly to a coma and then multi-organ failure
Trichinellosis (Trichinosis) Trichinella spiralis From consuming parasitized meat (especially pork) that is not completely cooked; enteral phase (intestines) is first, w/in 2-7 days of infection with nausea, heartburn, dyspepsis, and diarrhea; parenteral phase (outside intestines) follows quickly, causing edema, muscle pain, weakness, fever; swelling around eyes is characteristic, as are splinter hemorrhages in the nails over the course of 2-8 weeks.
Tuberculosis Mycobacterium tuberculosis Spread by air, most infections are asymptomatic; chronic cough, blood-tinged sputum, fever and night-sweats, and weight loss.
Tularemia Francisella tularensis From ticks, deer flies, and other vectors; perhaps from handling animals such as rabbits & rodents; symptoms usually within 3-5 days of exposure (up to 14 days), including skin ulcers, swollen/painful lymph glands, inflamed eyes, sore throat & mouth, diarrhea and pneumonia; inhaled bacteria can lead to rapid-onset fever/chills, headache, muscle/joint pain, dry cough, and bloody sputum
Typhoid fever Salmonella typhi From ingesting food or water contaminated by feces from infected persons; slowly progressing high fever, profuse sweating gastroenteritis, non-bloody diarrhea, delirium, fatigue; can follow four stages, each lasting a week and getting worse
Varicella (morbidity) Varicella-zoster virus Low-grade fever followed by a rash that starts on the head and progresses to the body (comes in waves every 3-5 days, with each lesion developing through stages of papule, vesicle, pustule, and crust).
Vibriosis Vibrio vulnificus Most often from eating contaminated (raw) shell-fish, usually w/in 2 days; copious watery diarrhea, cramps, nausea, vomiting, headache, fever; after it is in blood, lowered blood pressure, fluid-filled blisters on arms/legs
Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers Wide array of viruses Fever and bleeding diathesis (susceptibility to hemorrhaging); petechia (small purple spots from localized hemorrhages); starts with fever, progressing to headache and malaise, with vomiting and diarrhea developing with signs of hemorrhage (including blood in vomit and diarrhea)
Yellow fever Yellow fever virus From mosquitoes, after 3-6 day incubation, fever, headache, chills, back pain, decreased appetite, nausea, vomiting; if in second phase, jaundice and abdominal pain, bleeding in mouth, eyes, gastrointestinal tract (producing bloody vomit)