Chapter 7.1 and 7.2 Review Questions

What is a mutation?

What is a gene?  What is a gene made out of?  What does a gene produce?

What are alleles?

What is a chromosome?  Can you describe a duplicated chromosome?

What are sister chromatids?  How are they made?  What keeps them together?  What separates them and when (in Mitosis or Meiosis)?

What are homologous chromosomes?

What is segregation (in Meiosis) and how does it relate to independent (or random) assortment?

How do crossing over and independent assortment during Meiosis produce genetic variation?

What is fertilization?  What is an embryo?

Who was Gregor Mendel?

What is a phenotype?

What is a genotype?
What is homozygous dominant?  Heterozygous?  Homozygous recessive?  Can you identify these in terms of TT, Tt, and tt?

Consider "T and t"...  which of these would be the dominant allele?  The recessive allele?

What is an example of a single-gene recessive trait?  A single-gene dominant trait?
In genetic terms, what is a carrier?

What is a monohybrid cross?  How many traits are involved?

What is a Punnett Square for?

What is the typical ratio for a monohybrid cross between two parents that are both heterozygous ("Ff", for example, if you consider two people who are "carriers" for cystic fibrosis)?
What is a dihybrid cross?  How many traits are involved?
What is the typical ratio for a dihybrid cross between two parents that are both heterozygous for both traits ("RrYy", for example, if you consider Mendel's study with peas)?



Chapter 7.3 Review Questions

What is Quantitative Genetics?  Polygenics?  What is a normal or bell-curved distribution of traits?  What does the highest point on a bell-curved distribution represent?  Can you give any examples of traits that are polygenic?

What is heritability?