Chapter 6 Review Questions
What is cancer?  Metastasis/metastatic?  Malignant?  Benign?  What are risk factors for cancer?

What is a duplicated chromosome?  What are sister chromatids?  What is a centromere?

What is semiconservative replication?  What is the name of the enzyme that replicates DNA?

What is the cell cycle?  What are the steps in the cell cycle?  What happens, in general, in each step (I, M, and C)?

What is mitosis?  What are the steps of mitosis (do you know them in order)? What happens, in general, in each step?
How are plant cells different from animal cells when it comes to cytokinesis?  Which kind of cell demonstrates a "cell plate" and which kind demonstrates a "cleavage furrow" made by tightening bands of microfilaments?

What is meiosis?  What are the steps of meiosis (do you know them in order)? What happens, in general, in each step?  When does crossing over occur?  When does independent assortment (random alignment) occur?

What is a somatic cell?  How many chromosomes are in a normal human body cell (a somatic cell)?  What is diploid?

What is a gamete?  How many chromosomes are in a normal human gamete?  What is haploid?

What are autosomes?  How many does a normal human cell have?

What are sex chromosomes?  How many does a normal human cell have?
What combination of sex chromosomes produces a female or a male human?

What are homologous chromosomes?
When do homologous chromosomes separate in mitosis?  When do they separate in meiosis (meiosis I or II?)

What two events leads to genetic diversity in sex cells?  Hint:  One happens during Prophase I and and the other during Metaphase I.

What is a checkpoint protein and what does it regulate?

What are proto-oncogenes, oncogenes, and tumor-suppressor genes, and which one starts cell division?  Which stops cell division?

What are four characteristics of cancer cells (see section 'cancer development requires many mutations')?  What is the 'multiple-hit' model?

How is cancer detected and treated?