Bio R101


Exam 1 Study Guide


What is a scientific hypothesis?  What are features of a hypothesis?


What is a scientific theory?  What are some features of a scientific theory?


What is the concept of 'falsifiable' all about?  Hint:  Think about the Salem Witch Trials, and how they WERE NOT falsifiable.


What can be tested by science (using hypotheses) and what cannot be tested by science?


What is an experimental variable?  What is a control?  What is a placebo?


What is a blind experiment?  A double-blind experiment?


What is a correlation?  Does a correlation mean that there is definitely a cause between two things?


What is sampling error?  How can sampling error be reduced in an experiment?


What is statistical significance?


What is an atom?  Proton?  Neutron?  Electron?


What is a molecule?


What is a covalent bond?  Polar covalent bond?  Non-polar covalent bond?  What are valence electrons?  Valence shell?


With respect to dissolving things in waterÉ  What is a solvent?  What is a solute?  What is a solution?  What is hydrophilic?  Hydrophobic?


What is acid?  Base?  What pH is acidic?  Basic?  Neutral?


What are the four types of biological molecules?  What are the basic characteristics of each?

What are monomers and polymers?  What is a macromolecule?

What are macronutrients and micronutrients.  Give some examples of each.


What happens if you lose too much water?


How do three of the basic biological molecules fit into our diets?  What do we use each kind for?


What are the benefits of whole foods vs. processed foods?


What are vitamins and minerals?  How do they help enzymes function?

What is passive transport?  How do diffusion and facilitated diffusion differ from each other?  What about osmosis - what kind of movement does that describe?

What happens when a cell is placed into a solution with higher solute than the cell has (hypertonic)?  What happens with a lower solute solution (hypotonic)?  Equal solute (isotonic)?


What is active transport?  Exocytosis?  Endocytosis?

What is a cell membrane made out of?  What kind of biological molecule is this?


What things do ALL cells have?

What is the basic difference between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes?  Hint:  It has to do with membranes in the cell.

What are the following cellular components:  Nucleus, DNA, ribosome, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, mitochondrion, chloroplast.  Are there cellular components found only in plants?  What are they?  What is the cytoskeleton and what are centrioles?